+25 years experience


Dr Archana Jha

Senior Gynaecologist

In this informative blog, authored by Dr Archana Jha, senior gynaecologist with over 25 years of experience, we write about the common issue of dysmenorrhoea.
This blog elucidates the causes, symptoms, and various treatment options available for dysmenorrhoea. With his expertise in the field, we aim to provide valuable insights to help readers comprehend the condition better and explore effective management strategies.

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Understanding Dysmenorrhoea: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Dysmenorrhoea, commonly known as menstrual cramps, is a condition that affects many women during their menstrual cycles. This blog explores the causes, symptoms, treatments, and the significance of dysmenorrhoea across different age groups.

What is Dysmenorrhoea?

Dysmenorrhoea is characterized by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain associated with menstruation. It is divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhoea involves common menstrual cramps without an underlying medical condition, while secondary dysmenorrhoea is due to reproductive system disorders.


Dysmenorrhoea is highly prevalent, affecting up to 90% of adolescent girls and over 50% of menstruating women. It is one of the leading causes of absenteeism from work and school among women of reproductive age.


Primary dysmenorrhoea is caused by the release of prostaglandins, which trigger uterine contractions. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can be caused by conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and adenomyosis.


The pain associated with primary dysmenorrhoea is due to the overproduction of prostaglandins, leading to intense uterine contractions. Secondary dysmenorrhoea involves structural abnormalities or diseases in the pelvic area, causing inflammation and pain.


Treatment for dysmenorrhoea includes:

  • Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen are commonly used to reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Hormonal Treatments: Birth control pills can help regulate or stop menstruation, reducing the severity of symptoms.
  • Home Remedies: Heat application, regular exercise, and dietary changes can alleviate symptoms.
  • Alternative Therapies: Acupuncture and herbal remedies are sometimes used, though evidence of their efficacy varies.


In severe cases of secondary dysmenorrhoea caused by conditions like endometriosis or fibroids, surgical interventions such as laparoscopy, hysterectomy, or myomectomy may be necessary.


The prognosis for dysmenorrhoea varies. Primary dysmenorrhoea often improves with age or after childbirth. Secondary dysmenorrhoea depends on the underlying cause and its treatment.

Red Alerts

Seek medical attention if you experience:

  • Severe pain that disrupts daily activities.
  • Symptoms that start later in life.
  • Heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Pain that is not relieved by over-the-counter medications.

Age-wise Significance

Adolescents: Primary dysmenorrhoea is common and usually improves with age.
Adults: Secondary dysmenorrhoea becomes more significant, especially with reproductive health issues.
Post-menopausal Women: Dysmenorrhoea typically ceases after menopause unless there are other underlying conditions.


Dysmenorrhoea is a prevalent issue with varying causes and treatments. Understanding its types, causes, and treatment options can help manage symptoms effectively. Consult a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and tailored treatment plan.

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